grows best in the tropical regions, receiving a rainfall
of 750-1200 mm. Sugarcane grows well on medium heavy
soils, but can also be raised on lighter soils and heavy
clays, provided there is adequate irrigation. The soils
should be well drained.
The normal planting season is October-December. Delay
in planting reduces cane yield. Planting should not
be delayed beyond February in the plains. In hilly tracts
where sugarcane is cultivated under rain fed conditions,
planting should be done after abatement of heavy rains.
Tl 88322 (Madhuri): Resistant to red rot disease
Co 92175: Suitable for drought prone situation
Co 740: For ratooning
Co 6907, Co 7405 and Cul 57/84 (Thirumadhuram): Red
rot resistant, high sugar content
Cul 527/85 (Madhurima): Resistant to red rot, tolerant
to drought and waterlogging
Co 88017 (Madhumathi): Resistant to red rot, tolerant
to drought and waterlogging
Plough the land thrice length-wise and breadth-wise
and level properly. Prepare furrows 25 cm deep and
75 cm apart for short duration and 90 cm apart for
medium duration varieties. In hilly tracts, prepare
pits in rows along the contour at spacing of 30 cm
in the row and 75 cm between the rows. For mid late
varieties, an inter-row spacing of 75 cm is recommended.
Select top ends of mature, healthy disease free canes
up to 1/3 of total length and cut into setts of three
eye buds. The seed rate is 40000-45000 setts per hectare.
For control of fungus diseases like red rot, dip cut
ends of setts in 0.25% solution of copper based fungicide.
Plant setts end to end in the furrow, with the eye
buds facing sideways and cover with soil. In the pit
system, plant 2-3 setts in each pit.
Normally not more than two ratoon crops are recommended.
Burn the trash after spreading uniformly in the area
immediately after harvest of the previous crop. Stubble
shaving should be done with a sharp spade wherever
the canes are not cut close to the ground.
Fill the gaps at the rate of one three budded sett
for every 50 cm gap.
of ratoon crop
Ratoon crop requires a higher dose of nitrogen than
the plant crop. An extra dose of 25% nitrogen is recommended.
Manure the crop by 25th and 75th days after harvest
of the previous crop. Entire quantity of phosphorus,
half of nitrogen and potash are applied as the first
dose and the remaining as the second dose. The first
dose is incorporated into the soil by digging and
the second dose is applied around the clump and earthing
up is done. Weeding is also done at this time. Irrigation
is given as in plant crop.
Under irrigated conditions, intercropping with short
duration pulse crop is recommended. In such cases,
sow the pulse crop on the ridges one month in advance,
so that the first inter-cultivation is not hindered.
As a green manure, sunn hemp can also be raised on
the crop 8-10 times depending upon the availability
of rains. In Chittoor area, more number of irrigations
will be necessary. In early growth periods, irrigate
the crop at more frequent intervals. However, avoid
too much moisture and water stagnation especially during
germination and early growth phases
compost or cattle manure, 10 t/ha or pressmud 5 t/ha
or dolomite 500 kg/ha or calcium carbonate 750 kg/ha.
In addition, the following fertilizers as N:P2O5:K2O
kg/ha are also recommended.
and Thiruvalla areas:165: 82.5: 82.5
Chittoor area: 225:75:75
Newly cleared forest areas: 115:75:90
organic manures such as compost / cattle manure /
pressmud as basal dose preferably in furrows and mix
well with soil before planting.
lime / dolomite / calcium carbonate in the field before
final preparation of the land.
N and K2O in two split doses, the first 45 days after
planting and the second 90 days after planting along
with earthing up. Do not apply N beyond 100 days after
Apply entire dose of phosphorus as basal dressing.
crop should be weeded twice on 45 and 90 days after planting
before application of fertilizers. First weeding is done
by digging on the ridges and by hand in the furrows. Care
should be taken to see that the furrows are not filled
up while digging so that tillering is not affected. At
the time of second digging, the crop is partially earthed
up to arrest formation of late shoots. With the commencement
of the southwest monsoon, final earthing up should be
done to prevent lodging. At this time, de-trashing is
to be done to prevent the possible germination of auxillary
buds and to reduce pest infestation. Prevent lodging either
by twisting of trash or by propping.
2 kg ai/ha can be applied as a pre-emergent weedicide
3 days after planting.
important pests of sugarcane found in the state are
early shoot borers, top shoot borers mealy bugs, white
grubs, termites and rats.
Use pest free setts for planting.
Adhere to clean cultivation.
Use traps or poison baiting for controlling rats.
Apply carbaryl 10% dust in the furrows to control termites
and white grubs.
The most characteristic symptom of the disease is the
drying up of the canes, which when split open will show
characteristic red colouration of the internal tissues
with horizontal white patches and the typical foul smell.
The disease is mainly transmitted through infected setts
and flowing water and can be checked only by prophylactic
means which are given below:
Affected crop should be harvested as early as possible
to prevent loss in yield and deterioration in quality
and also to arrest further spread of the disease. The
crop residues should be completely burnt after harvesting.
2. When infection is noticed in the field, the affected
clumps should be uprooted and burnt promptly.
3. Infected crop should never be ratooned.
4. Water should not be let into a healthy crop from
diseased areas and as far as possible, the field may
be kept free of standing water by providing drainage
5. In severely affected areas sugarcane should not be
cultivated at least for one season during which paddy
and tapioca can be cultivated.
6. Seed setts should not be collected from diseased
crops and from diseased areas.
7. Movement of seed materials from diseased to healthy
areas should be strictly quarantined.
8. Cultivate red rot resistant varieties.
9. To control the fungal diseases, in general, dip the
cut ends of setts in any of the copper based fungicide
solution before planting.
transmissible diseases like grassy shoot, ratoon stunting
etc. can be controlled by heat treatment and by implementing
three tier seed programme.
the crop when it is fully mature. Delayed harvesting
will reduce yield and recovery percentage