belongs to the family Pedaliaceae.It is annual herb growing
to a height of 0.5-2.0 m. The plant has tap root system
with erect stem which is square in cross section.The leaves
on the stem may be opposite,alternate or mixed.The inflorescence
is a receme. The flowers arise in the leaf axils. The
fruit is a capsule having two or four carpels.Seeds are
small, ovate, slightly flattened and the colour may be
black, white or brown.
Sesame grows in well-drained, sandy loam soils. Coarse
sandy soils and soils of alkaline and saline nature are
not suited for the crop.
paddy field: December-April (third crop)
upland cultivation use varieties with long duration
of 100-110 days and for low land use varieties with
duration of 80-99 days.
for lowlands of Onattukara
for rice fallows in Onattukara, resistant to leaf
line selection for summer fallows of Onattukara
line selection suited for uplands
line selection suited to summer fallows of Onattukara
(CST 785 x B14)
for the summer rice fallows of Onattukara, oil 51.5%,
duration 78 days
to uplands of Onattukara (rabi season), oil 50.5%
to summer rice fallows of Onattukara
of land and sowing
the soil into a fine tilth by ploughing 2-4 times and
breaking the clods. Seed rate is 4-5 kg/ha. Broadcast
seeds evenly, preferably mixed with sand 2-3 times its
volume, to ensure uniform coverage. Work with harrow,
followed by pressing with wooden plank so as to cover
the seed in the soil.
the crop is grown under rainfed conditions. When facilities
are available, the crop may be irrigated to field capacity
after thinning operation and thereafter at 15-20 days
interval. Stop irrigation just before the pods begin
Surface irrigation at 3 cm depth during the critical
stages, viz., 4-5 leaves, branching, flowering and pod
formation will increase the yield by 35-52%. Two irrigations
of 3 cm depth each in the vegetative phase (4-5 leaf
stage or branching) and in reproductive phase (at flowering
or pod formation) are the best, registering maximum
yield and water use efficiency. In the case of single
irrigation, it can be best given in the reproductive
phase. In the tail end fields in command area, best
use of the sparingly available water can be made for
augmenting sesame production.
manures and fertilizers at the following rates.
cattle manure/compost as basal dressing and incorporate
into the soil along with last ploughing. Apply fertilizers
as basal dose when there is enough moisture in the soil.
Urea is preferable to ammonium sulphate. Nitrogen may
be applied in split doses, 75% as basal and the balance
as foliar spray at 3% concentration, 20-35 days after
sowing keeping the discharge rate at 500 l/ha.
of the crop may be done twice, first at 15 days and
the next 25-35 days after sowing. When the plants are
about 15 cm in height, thin the crop so as to give a
spacing of 15-25 cm between plants.
control of leaf and pod caterpillar, remove affected leaves
and shoots and dust with carbaryl 10%. For control of
gall fly, give preventive spray with 0.2% carbaryl
control of leaf curl disease, remove and destroy disease
affected sesame plants as well as the diseased collateral
hosts like chilli, tomato and zinnia.
Remove plants affected with phyllody and destroy them.
Do not use seeds from affected plants for sowing.
the crop, when the capsules turn yellowish by pulling
out the plants. Harvest during the morning hours. Cut
the root portion and stack the plants in bundles for
3-4 days when the leaves will fall off. Spread in the
sun and beat with sticks to break open the capsules.
Repeat this for 3 days. Preserve seeds collected during
the first day for seed purposes. Clean and dry in sun
for about 7 days before storing.
keeping sesame seeds in polybags, tin bins, wooden receptacles
or in earthen pots, the viability can be maintained
for about one year. Admixture of seeds with ash will
drastically reduce germination.
kg of seeds per hectare.