Mollison, an Australian ecologist, and one of his students,
David Holmgren, coined the word "permaculture"
in 1978. It is a contraction of "permanent agriculture"
or "permanent culture." They defined it as
a design system for creating sustainable human environments.
It uses ecology as the basis for designing integrated
systems of food production, housing, appropriate technology,
and community development.
Permaculture is built upon an ethic of caring for the
earth and interacting with the environment in mutually
A central theme in Permaculture is the design of ecological
landscapes that produce food. Emphasis is placed on
multi-use plants, cultural practices such as sheet mulching
and trellising, and the integration of animals to recycle
nutrients and graze weeds.
is one of the most holistic, integrated systems analysis and design
methodologies found in the world.
can be applied to create productive ecosystems from the human-
use standpoint or to help degraded ecosystems recover health and
can be applied in any ecosystem, no matter how degraded.
values and validates traditional knowledge and experience. incorporates
sustainable agriculture practices and land management techniques
and strategies from around the world
is a bridge between traditional cultures and emergent earth-tuned
promotes organic agriculture, which does not use pesticides to
pollute the environment.
aims to maximize symbiotic and synergistic relationships between
is urban planning as well as rural land design.
design is site specific, client specific, and culture specific