appear to have originated in Brazil in South America.
The crop belongs to the family Leguminoseae. It is an
annual growing to a height of 30-60 cm with angular hairy
stem which has erect or spreading branches.It has deep
taproot system with root nodules.Leaves occur alternate,
one at each node. Leaves are pinnate with two pairs of
ovate leaflets.The flowers are borne at leaf axils. Petals
yellow in colour. Eight to ten stamens form a monadelphous
bundle. Flowers are self-pollinated. After pollination
perianth withers and at the base of the ovary a meristematic
region grows into a stalk-like peg.The peg pushes the
ovary into the soil. The fruit is an indehiscent pod containing
Groundnut can be cultivated as a floor crop in coconut
gardens, as an intercrop with tapioca and as a catch crop
after second crop paddy with irrigation. The crop is grown
best in sandy loam and loam soils.
May-June to September-October
Irrigated: January to May
TG-3, TMV-2 and TMV-7 are recommended as intercrops
in coconut gardens.
the field three or four times into a fine tilth. Sow
the seeds by dibbling in ploughed furrows at a spacing
of 15 x 15 cm. For seed treatment the rhizobial culture
Irrigation and interculture
the crop once in 7 days. Weed the crop 10-15 days after
germination of seed by light hoeing. Give another light
hoeing or raking at the time of application of lime.
Do not disturb the soil after 45 days of sowing.
manure or compost 2 t/ha
Lime 1-1.5 t/ha
N:P2O5:K2O 10:75:75 kg/ha
Apply entire quantity of cattle manure or compost
and recommended quantity of fertilizers as basal dressing
and incorporate well into the soil. Apply lime at
the time of flowering of the crop and mix with the
soil by light hoeing or raking.
crop is generally grown as a rainfed crop. If dry spell
occurs one irrigation should be given at pod development
hairy caterpillar, termites and leaf miners are the
major pests of groundnut. Against leaf miner apply any
of the organophosphorus insecticides with contact action.
Spraying carbaryl 0.15% controls red hairy caterpillars.
Against ants / earwigs / termites damaging the pods,
apply carbaryl 10% DP in soil at the time of seeding.
leaf spot disease infects both the rainfed and irrigated
crops. Prophylactic spraying with Bordeaux mixture 1%
before flowering will control the disease.
crop will be ready for harvest when the leaves start
yellowing and begin to dry up. Development of brown
colour inside the pods also indicates maturity of the
the harvested crop in small heaps two or three days
for curing. After curing detach the pods either by hand
or using groundnut plucker.
type : 1.5-2.0 tons of pods per hectare
Spreading type : 2-3 tons of pods per hectare