is a short-lived perennial herb but is cultivated as
an annual herb. The leaves are oblong and glabrous.
The flowers are solitary, rarely in pairs, pure white
to bluish white, very rarely violet in colour. The berries
are green, maturing into yellow, orange to red grading
into brown or purple, pendent, rarely erect, very variable
in size (up to 20 cm long and 10 cm in dia.), shape
and pungency and sometimes lobed. The seeds are white
or cream to yellow, thin, almost circular, having long
yielding varieties: Jwalasakhi, Jwalamukhi, Jwala, Pant
Bacterial wilt resistant varieties: Manjari, Ujwala,
rate: 1.0 kg/ha
Chilli is a transplanted crop. Seeds are sown in the
nursery and one-month-old seedlings are transplanted
to the main field. For sowing the seeds, raised seed-beds
of 90 to 100 cm width and of convenient length are
prepared to which well decomposed organic matter has
been incorporated. After sowing the seeds, mulch with
green leaves and irrigate with a rose-can daily in
the morning. Remove the mulch immediately after germination
of the seeds. Restrict irrigation one week before
transplanting and irrigate heavily on the previous
day of transplanting.
Time of planting
For rainfed crop, transplant the seedlings during
May-June before the onset of southwest monsoon. Planting
can also be done during September-October for irrigated
Land preparation and transplanting
Land is prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing
/ digging. Well rotten organic manure is incorporated
in the soil and seedlings are transplanted in shallow
trenches / pits during May or on ridges / level lands
during rainy season. Transplanted seedlings may also
be given temporary shade for three to four days during
Transplant less spreading varieties like Swetha and
Surya at 60 x 60 cm. For spreading varieties Haritha
and Neelima, provide wider spacing of 75-90 x 60 cm.
at three or four days interval during summer.
followed by fertilizer application and earthing up may
be done one and two months after transplanting.
Apply well rotten FYM / compost @ 20-25 t/ha at the
time of land preparation and mix well with the soil.
A fertilizer dose of 75:40:25 kg N:P2O5: K2O / ha
may be given. Half the dose of nitrogen, full phosphorus
and half of potash may be applied as basal dose before
transplanting. One fourth of nitrogen and half of
potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The
remaining quantities may be applied two months after
Application of 75:25:25 kg N:P2O5:K2O / ha is optimum
for getting maximum yield of fruits for the variety
Swetha in the reclaimed alluvial soils of Kuttanad.
However, the economic optimum dose was found to be
60:20:25 kg of N:P2O5:K2O / ha.
Stake the plants if necessary.
Spray quinalphos 0.025% for control of mealy bugs and
lace wings. Dimethoate at 0.05% is effective for controlling
mites, aphids and other sucking insects.
For avoiding damping off of the seedlings in the nursery,
sow the seeds as thin as possible in raised beds prepared
in the open area during summer months. Spray nursery
and main field with 1% Bordeaux mixture at monthly intervals
during rainy season. Uproot and destroy the plants affected
by bacterial wilt and mosaic.
Cultivate resistant varieties like Manjari, Ujwala and
Anugraha in bacterial wilt prone areas.
can be harvested from 75 days after transplanting. For
dry chilly, fully ripe pods have to be harvested and
dried in sun.For green chilly, fully matured green fruits
have to be harvested.
chilli yield is about 8-10 tonnes/ha.
Dry chilli yield would be 1800 -2200 kg/ha.