is a tropical vegetable believed to be a native of India.
The varieties of Solanum melongena L. display a wide
range of fruit shapes and colors, ranging from oval
or egg-shaped to long club-shaped; and from white, yellow,
green through degrees of purple pigmentation to almost
black. Eggplant is a warm season crop. It requires a
long and warm growing season for successful production.
It is more susceptible to lower temperatures than tomato
and pepper. A day temperature of 25-32 °C and a
night temperature of 21-27 °C are ideal for plant
growth and fruit development. Eggplant can be grown
on different kinds of soil but does best on well-drained
silt loams or clay loams with a pH of 5.5-6.5. The flowers
are borne solitarily or in clusters of two or more.
In the solitary flowering type, flower drop is very
low, whereas in the clustered flowering type, flower
drop may be as high as 80%. The flower is normally perfect,
having functional male (anthers) and female (pistil)
parts. It has been reported that long styled flowers
(defined as the stigma is either above or on the same
level as the stamen) are always more appreciable in
number than short-styled flowers (defined as the stigma
is below the stamen). Fruit set rates are higher for
long-styled flowers compared with short-styled flowers
Swetha and Haritha (bacterial wilt resistant open pollinated
varieties), Neelima (bacterial wilt resistant F1 hybrid),
Pusa Purple Cluster.
rate: 370-500 g/ha
Brinjal is a transplanted vegetable. Seeds are sown
in the nursery and one-month-old seedlings are transplanted
to the main field. For sowing the seeds, raised seed
beds of 90 to 100 cm width and convenient length are
prepared in open space with fertile topsoil to which
well decomposed organic matter has been incorporated.
After sowing the seeds, mulch with green leaves and
irrigate with a rose-can daily in the morning. Remove
the mulch immediately after germination of the seeds.
Restrict irrigation one week before transplanting
and irrigate heavily on the previous day of transplanting.
Time of planting
For rainfed crop, transplant the seedlings during
May-June before the onset of southwest monsoon. Planting
can also be done during September-October for irrigated
Land preparation and transplanting
Land is prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing
or digging. Well rotten organic manure is incorporated
in the soil and seedlings are transplanted in shallow
trenches / pits during May or on ridges / levelled
lands during rainy season. Transplanted seedlings
may be given temporary shade for 3-4 days during summer.
Transplant less spreading varieties like Swetha and
Surya at 60 x 60 cm. For spreading varieties Haritha
and Neelima, provide wider spacing of 75-90 x 60 cm.
at three or four days interval during summer.
Apply well rotten FYM / compost @ 20-25 t/ha at the
time of land preparation and mix well with the soil.
A fertilizer dose of 75:40:25 kg N:P2O5: K2O / ha
may be given. Half the dose of nitrogen, full phosphorus
and half of potash may be applied as basal dose before
transplanting. One fourth of nitrogen and half of
potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The
remaining quantities may be applied two months after
Application of 75:25:25 kg N:P2O5:K2O / ha is optimum
for getting maximum yield of fruits for the variety
Swetha in the reclaimed alluvial soils of Kuttanad.
However, the economic optimum dose was found to be
60:20:25 kg of N:P2O5:K2O / ha.
followed by fertilizer application and earthing up may
be done one and two months after transplanting.
Stake the plants if necessary.
Follow mechanical removal and destruction of pest /
disease affected portions for control of fruit and shoot
borer and Phomopsis fruit rot. Spray carbaryl 0.15%
at an interval of 15-20 days to control fruit and shoot
borer under large-scale cultivation.
The root knot nematode can be managed by the application
of Bacillus macerans or B. circulans 1.2 x 106 cells
per m2 in nursery bed two days before sowing (ad hoc
For the control of pests, application of granules of
carbofuran at the rate of 0.5 kg ai/ha or phorate at
the rate of 1 kg ai/ha at seeding followed by need based
application of foliar insecticides has been recommended.
The application of granules is recommended only at the
time of seeding.
In general, insecticides of plant origin may be used,
as far as possible.
For avoiding damping off of the seedlings in the nursery,
sow the seeds as thin as possible in the raised beds
prepared in the open area during summer months. Uproot
plants affected by little leaf and spray insecticides
for further control.
Cultivate resistant varieties like Surya, Swetha and
Haritha and the hybrid Neelima in bacterial wilt prone
first harvest starts from 55-60 days after transplanting.
Harvest can be done at an interval of 5 days.
yield ranges from 20 -35 tonnes/ha. Depending upon