Beverages and Stimulants
arecanut palms grow under a variety of climatic and soil
conditions. It grows well from almost sea level up to
an altitude of 1000 m in areas of abundant and well-distributed
rainfall or under irrigated conditions. It is grown in
a variety of soils such as laterites, red loams and alluvial.
of mother palms
mother palms showing earliness and regularity in bearing,
high percentage of fruit set and semi-tall to dwarf in
of seed nuts
Select fully tree-ripe nuts from middle bunches during
midseason. Discard nuts, which are undersized, malformed
and low in weight.
selected seed nuts soon after harvest in nursery bed
with stalk-end up and with a spacing of 5-6 cm. Cover
the seed nuts with sand and irrigate daily.
90 day old sprouts having 2-3 leaves to the secondary
nursery. Prepare secondary nursery beds of 150 cm width
and of convenient length. Apply cattle manure @ 5 t/ha
as basal dose. Transplant sprouts at a spacing of 30
x 30 cm. Provide shade by growing banana, Coccinia indica
etc or by means of artificial pandal. Plant banana in
advance at a spacing of 2.7 x 3.6 m when it is grown
as a shade crop. Provide irrigation during hot and dry
periods and drainage during monsoon. Periodical weeding
and mulching are necessary.
good seedlings for transplanting in the main field when
they are 12-18 months old. Selection of seedlings can
be based on the selection index. Multiplying leaf number
by 40 and subtracting the seedling height gives the
selection index. Select seedlings with higher selection
height = 90 cm, Leaf number = 5.
Selection index (5 x 40)-90 = 110
(If for instance, index values range between 50 and
150, select seedlings with higher values to the extent
possible). Remove seedlings with the ball of earth attached
to them for transplanting.
Plant characters such as girth at the collar one year
after transplanting and number of nodes two years after
transplanting are highly correlated with yield. Removal
of plants with poor collar girth and lesser number of
nodes one and two years after planting respectively,
will help to increase the yield potential of plantations.
Sumangala, Sreemangala and Mohitnagar.
Select sites with deep well drained soil without high
water table. Provide adequate irrigation facilities.
tall, quick growing shade trees on the southern and
western sides of the plantation to provide protection
from sun scorching.
seedlings in pits at a spacing of 2.7 m x 2.7 m with
north-south alignment, the rows being deflected at an
angle of 35º towards west. Dig pits of size 60
x 60 x 60 cm and fill up with rich topsoil to a level
of 15 cm from the bottom. Plant seedlings at the centre
of pit, cover with soil up to collar level and press
planting is to be done during May-June in well-drained
soils and during August-September in clayey soils. Banana
may be planted between rows to provide shade in the
initial stages up to 4-5 years.
and mixed cropping
Crops such as elephant foot yam, pineapple, pepper,
betel vine, banana, guinea grass, cocoa, ginger and
cardamom can be grown in arecanut gardens. While planting
cocoa, a spacing 2.7 x 5.4 m is recommended. In all
cases, the intercrops should be manured adequately and
green leaf and compost, each at the rate of 12 kg per
palm per year from first year of planting onwards, during
the palms during hot and dry periods at regular intervals
of 3-5 days depending upon the soil type.
palms should be irrigated once in four to seven days
depending on the soil type and climatic factors. In
west coast, where major area of arecanut gardens are
irrigated, watering the garden once in seven or eight
days during November-December, once in six days during
January-February and once in three to five days during
March-April-May is recommended. In each irrigation,
give about 175 litres of water per palm. Where there
is shortage of water, follow drip irrigation. Application
of organic mulch to the garden helps conservation
of soil moisture.
drainage channels (25-30 cm deep from the bottom of
pits) between the rows and drain out water during
periods of heavy rainfall to prevent waterlogging.
N:P2O5:K2O for adult palms @ 100: 40:140 g / palm /
1/3 dose during first year, 2/3 dose during second year
and full dose from third year onwards. Under irrigated
conditions, apply fertilizers in two split doses, the
first during September-October and the second during
February. Under rainfed conditions, apply the second
dose during March-April after the receipt of summer
rains. Apply manures and fertilizers during September-October
in circular basins of 15-20 cm depth and with a radius
of 0.75-1.0 m from the palm. Apply the second dose of
fertilizers around the base of palm after weeding and
mix into soil by light forking. In acidic soils, broadcast
lime at the rate of 0.5 kg per palm once in two or three
years and incorporate into soil by forking during March-April.
the garden free of weeds and break up surface crust
by light forking or digging after cessation of monsoon
during October-November. In slopes, prevent soil erosion
by terracing. Sow seeds of green manure-cum-cover crops
such as Mimosa invisa, Stylosanthes gracilis and Calapagonium
muconoides in April-May with the onset of pre-monsoon
rains. Cut and apply them to the palms in September-October.
Orange coloured mites can be controlled by spraying
the bunches with dimethoate at 0.05 per cent.
bug (Carvalhoia arecae)
feeding injury is caused on the lamina and petiole.
The affected leaves show dry brown patches.
crowns with carbaryl 50 WP. The spray should reach the
leaf axils. Repeat spraying after 30-35 days if pest
incidence continues. Placement of 2 g phorate 10G sachets
on the top most two leaf axils prevents the pest attack.
caterpillar (Batachedra sp.)
Force open the inflorescence out of the enclosing spathe
and spray malathion 50 EC (250 ml in 100 litres of water).
Control slugs, which predispose inflorescence to the
attack of caterpillar, by using bait of metaldehyde.
grub (Leucopholis burmeisteri)
Loosen soil around the base of palms to a depth of 10-15
cm and drench with chlorpyrifos 0.04% suspension twice,
one in May just before the onset of southwest monsoon
and again in September-October towards the close of
the monsoon. Repeat application for 2 or 3 years consecutively
to secure a complete eradication of the pest. Root grubs
can also be controlled by soil application of phorate
10G around the palms.
(Mahali or fruit rot) (Phytophthora palmivora)
Bordeaux mixture 1% on all bunches three times in a
year, one just before the onset of southwest monsoon
and the rest at 40 days intervals. If monsoon season
is prolonged give a third spray. Use rosin soda adhesive
to ensure tenacity of the spray deposit on treated substrate.
Remove and burn all fallen and infected nuts.
rot (Phytophthora palmivora)
Remove and destroy affected spindle and leaves. In early
stages of infection, scoop out affected rotten tissues
by making longitudinal side splits and apply Bordeaux
paste on the exposed healthy tissues or drench crown
with 1% Bordeaux mixture.
stem rot (Anabe) (Ganoderma lucidum)
1. Isolate affected palms by digging trenches 60 cm
deep and 30 cm wide around, one metre away from the
base and drench with captan (0.3%), calixin (0.1%) or
copper oxychloride (0.3%)
2. Remove and destroy all severely affected palms and
stumps of dead palms.
3. Drench the soil with 1% Bordeaux mixture before planting
4. Discourage growing of collateral hosts of fungus
such as Delonix regia and Pongamia glabra in the vicinity
5. Apply 2 kg neem cake per palm.
6. Avoid flood irrigation and water flowing from infected
palms to healthy palms.
Maintain the garden properly to keep affected palms
in a healthy condition by adopting recommended manurial,
cultural, plant protection and other management practices.
Improve drainage conditions in the garden.
Apply the recommended dose of fertilizers.
2. In addition to the above, apply 160 g of rock phosphate
per palm in the affected garden.
3. Apply organic manure @ 12 kg each of compost and
green leaves per palm per year.
4. Provide irrigation during summer months
5. Avoid water stagnation in the garden by providing
6. Grow cover crops in the garden.
7. When only a few palms are affected in a garden, remove
them to prevent further spread of the disease.
8. Adopt need based plant protection measures against
pests and diseases.
Improve soil conditions by loosening hard soil strata,
if present, by providing good drainage. Adopt adequate
control measures against spindle bug, mealy bugs, scales
and mites. Where the results of the above treatments
are not found satisfactory, apply powdered mixture of
copper sulphate and lime in equal quantities @ 225 g/palm
twice a year at the base of affected palms. Application
of borax @ 25 g/palm has been found to have an ameliorative
rot of seedlings
Improve drainage conditions in nursery beds and gardens.
Drench spindle and base of seedlings with 1% Bordeaux
mixture in disease affected nursery or garden.
Remove affected inflorescence immediately. Spray zineb
(4 g in 1 litre of water) or mancozeb (3 g/l) twice,
once just after female flowers are set and again 15-28
days later. Aureofungin sol at 50 ppm concentration
is also effective in controlling the disease.
Palms in the age group of 10-15 years are more prone
to this disease. Symptoms appear on the basal portion
of the stem as small discoloured depression. Later,
these spots coalesce and cracks develop on the stem
leading to disintegration of the fibrous tissues inside.
With the progress of the disease, a brown exudate oozes
out from these cracks. High water table predisposes
the palm to this disease.
Improvement of drainage and root feeding of 125 ml tridemorph
(1.5%) is suggested as control measure against this
Protect palms from southwest sun by wrapping stems with
areca sheath or white-wash the exposed portion. Provide
reinforcement to palms showing stem fissures. Grow tall,
quick growing trees on southern and western sides of
This can be considered as a physiological disorder than
a disease. Palms in the age group of 10-25 years are
more susceptible. Symptoms are premature yellowing of
the nuts when they are half to three-fourth mature.
Later splits develop at the tips, which extend longitudinally
exposing the kernel. Sometimes kernel also show splitting
and malformation. Rarely the kernel inside may exhibit
splitting without visual symptoms on the husk, resulting
in nut fall. Hyper nutrition or sudden flush of water
after a period of drought or insufficient moisture in
the soil is the probable cause (s) of the disease.
of drainage in ill drained gardens and spraying of borax
@ 2 g/litre of water are found effective in reducing
the disease incidence.
simple de-husking device has been standardized by the
CPCRI, Kasaragod. The out turn with this device is 60
kg of husked nuts in the case of dry nuts and 30 kg in
the case of green nuts. The cost of the device is about