CROP : FRENCH BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris)
The common bean is the most important economic
variety of the genus Phaseolus, and is grown in all parts
of the world. It requires much warmth and sun. Cool weather
and wind hamper the growth. Medium heavy or light soils
are preferred. Highly polymorphic species; annual herb,
erect and bushy, 20-60 cm tall, or twining with stems
2-3 m long; with a taproot and nitrogenous nodules; leaves
alternate, green or purple, trifoliolate, stipulate, petiolate,
a marked pulvinus at base; leaflets ovate, entire; acuminate,
6-15 cm long, 3-11 cm wide; flowers in lax, axillary few-flowered
(12) racemes, zygomorphic, variegated, white, pink, or
purplish, ca 1 cm long; pods slender, green, yellow, black,
or purple, cylindrical or flat, 8-20 cm long, 1-1.5 cm
wide; seeds 4-6-(12), usually glabrous, sometimes puberulent,
beak prominent; seeds white, red, tan, purple, grey or
black, often variegated, reniform, oblong or globose,
up to 1.5 cm long, endosperm absent; 100 seeds weigh 10-67
g, depending on cv; germination phanerocotylar.
In Kerala this crop can be grown in the high ranges of
elevation more than 1000 m, throughout the year. The crop
being susceptible to ground frost in higher altitudes
(above 1400 m), adequate protection should be given during
January-February. Light sandy-loam to clayey-loam soils
with good drainage are best suited for the crop.
There are two types of French beans viz.,
pole beans and bush beans.
Pole beans: Kentucky Wonder
Bush beans: Contender, Premier,
YCD-1, Arka Komal, Tender Green
Prepare land thoroughly by ploughing. Raised beds are
not essential for bush beans. For pole beans, raised beds
are advantageous. Spacing of 30 cm x 20 cm is recommended.
Apply basal dose of 20 t/ha of FYM and N:P2O5:K2O @ 30:40:60
kg/ha. Top dressing with 30 kg N/ha may be given 20 days
Provide support, 1 to 1.5 m long for trailing the plants.
First weeding can be given about 4 weeks after sowing
and second weeding will be essential 50 days later. Pods
become ready for harvest in 50-60 days in the case of
bush beans and in 70-80 days for the pole beans. The average
yield of green pods is 8-10 t/ha.
Treat the seeds with copper based fungicides.
Apply malathion 0.05% for controlling aphids.