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CATEGORY : SpicesandAromatics
Posted Date

23/1/2019

Question

Hi I like to know more about coco farming and nutmug farming.

Answer

Dear Anas COCOA (Theobroma cacao) The cocoa tree flourishes in the dense shade of warm rain forests in its natural habitat and hence can be cultivated in all similar climatic conditions. The tree cannot withstand high winds, drought or sudden fall in temperature. The crop requires well-distributed rainfall. The minimum requirement of rainfall is about 100-150 cm per annum. Situations where the temperature falls below 10°C or rises above 38°C are unfavourable although minor deviations from the above limit can be adjusted by shade and irrigation. High wind velocity causes considerable mechanical damage to trees. Cocoa is grown at altitude up to 900 m above MSL though it is possible to grow the crop even in much higher elevations under sheltered conditions. The best soil for cocoa is forest soil rich in humus. The soil should allow easy penetration of roots and capable of retaining moisture during summer. Clay loams, loams and sandy loams are suitable. Shallow soils should be avoided. Varieties Though three varietal types viz., Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario are recognized, only Forastero types are known to perform well under Indian conditions. Cocoa is highly cross pollinated and growing of different varieties adjacent to each other must be encouraged so as to achieve maximum fruit set and yield realization. Table 14. Improved varieties and salient features Varieties/hybrids Salient features CCRP-1 Selection, tolerant to VSD CCRP-2 Selection, tolerant to VSD CCRP-3 Selection, tolerant to VSD CCRP-4 Selection, tolerant to VSD CCRP-5 Selection, tolerant to VSD CCRP-6 Selection, tolerant to VSD CCRP-7 Selection, tolerant to VSD CCRP-8 Hybrid, tolerant to VSD CCRP-9 Hybrid, tolerant to VSD CCRP-10 Hybrid, tolerant to VSD Selection of site Cocoa is usually planted under coconut and arecanut plantations in India. Shade levels under coconut canopy are highly variable depending mainly on the spacing of coconut, extent of canopy development and age of palms. It is estimated that light infiltration through coconut canopy ranges from about 30 to 80 per cent depending upon these factors. Based on this, the general recommendation is as follows: 1. If a choice is possible, a coconut plantation that will let in more light through the canopy may be chosen for raising cocoa. 2. If the light infiltration is over 50 per cent, it may be beneficial to provide additional shade using temporary shade plants like banana. Preparation of land The seedlings / budded clones are usually planted in the interspaces of coconut / arecanut. Give a spacing of 3 to 4.5 m. The crop is best grown with 50 per cent light intensity in the early stages. In the early life of the plants, planting of quick growing plants like banana and tapioca can provide temporary shade. Planting materials Cocoa can be propagated by seed and vegetative means. Seed propagation It is desirable to collect seeds from biclonal or polyclonal seed gardens involving superior self-incompatible parents to ensure genetic superiority of planting materials. Polyclonal and biclonal seed gardens have been established at CCRP farm of the Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara and Kidu farm of CPCRI and seeds and seedlings are being supplied to growers. If seeds cannot be procured from such seed gardens, mother plants for collection of seeds may be selected based on the following criteria: (1) Trees of Forastero type having medium or large pods of not less than 350 g weight or 400 cc volume, green in colour when immature, having smooth or shallow furrows on the surface without prominent constriction at the neck should be selected. Yield of pods should be not less than 100 per year. (2) Husk thickness of pods to be not more than 1 cm. (3) Pod value (number of pods to give 1 kg wet beans) to be not more than 12. (4) Number of beans per pod to be not less than 35. (5) Bean dry weight to be not less than 1 g. Seeds lose viability within a week of harvest of pods. Seeds are to be sown immediately after extraction from the pods. Viability of the beans can be extended for some more days if freshly extracted seeds are stored in moist charcoal and packed in polybags. Other alternative is extracting beans, removing the testa and packing in polythene bags. Time of sowing Though the seeds will germinate at any time of the year, seeds may preferably be sown by December-January, so that 4-6 month old seedlings become available for planting by May-June. Method of sowing Seeds are to be sown with hilum-end down or to be sown flat. Sowing is to be as shallow as to just cover the seeds with soil. Removal of pulp may enhance the speed of germination, but the extent of additional advantage is only marginal. Seeds start germination in about a week and germination may continue for another one week. Percentage of germination may be around 90. Cocoa nursery is to be located in a heavily shaded area, which allows only 25-50 per cent sunlight. Regular watering is necessary to keep the soil moist. Seedlings are transplanted after 4-6 months. Only vigorous seedlings are to be used and based on height and stem girth, 25% poor seedlings may be rejected. When seedlings are grown under heavy shade, hardening for 10 days by exposing to higher illumination may be necessary before transplanting. Vegetative propagation In view of the high variability exhibited by seedling progenies, vegetative propagation is preferred for large scale planting. Though vegetative propagation of cocoa by budding, rooting of cuttings and grafting are feasible, the widely accepted method in India is budding. Scions for budding are to be collected from high yielding, disease resistant elite plants. Shoots having brown bark and just hardened leaves are selected as bud wood. Scions are preferably procured by cutting off lamina of all the leaves of the selected scion shoot to a distance of about 30 cm from the tip. After 10 days when the petioles have fallen off, these scion shoots are cut and used for budding immediately. Bud wood can be stored by dipping in benzyl chloride followed by washing in water and then sealing the cut ends using molten wax. Bud wood is then wrapped in moist cotton wool and in turn in wet tissue paper or blotting paper and packed in boxes with wet packing material. The packet is then covered using polythene sheets. Storage life of the bud wood can be extended up to 10 days by this method. As far as possible, bud wood is to be collected from chupons as those produced from fans may develop into bushy plants with spreading habit. Rootstock, six to twelve months old may be selected in such a way that scion and rootstock are of the same thickness. Different successful methods include T, inverted T, patch, and modified Forkert methods. Patch budding is adopted in the Kerala Agricultural University. Patch budding method consists of removing a patch of about 2.5 cm length and 0.5 cm width from the rootstocks, preparing a bud patch of 2.5 cm length and 0.5 cm width from the bud wood and inserting it into the rootstock and tying firmly with polythene tape. After three weeks, if there is bud-take, polythene tape is removed; a vertical cut is made half way through the stem above the bud and is snapped back. The snapped root stock portion is cut back after the bud has grown to a shoot and at least two leaves have hardened. It is then allowed to grow for a further period of three to six months after which they are transplanted. Under normal conditions, success can be around 70-90 per cent. Selection of planting materials When seedlings are used for planting, select only vigorous and healthy seedlings produced from polyclonal seed garden or selected mother plants as described earlier. When budded plants are used, select two or more clones for planting as the use of a single clone can lead to poor production due to the existence of self-incompatibility in cocoa. Time and method of planting Raising cocoa as a pure crop is not recommended especially in Kerala due to high pressure on land. Cocoa is planted as an intercrop in coconut and arecanut gardens. In coconut, depending upon the spacing adopted, one or two rows of cocoa can be planted in between two rows of coconut i.e., two rows where the spacing is more than 8 m and one row otherwise, the plant distance for cocoa being 2.7 to 3 m. When two-row system is adopted, the seedlings may be planted in zigzag or triangular manner. In arecanut where the normal spacing is 2.7 m, cocoa is planted at the centre of four areca palms along alternate rows of interspaces only. Pits of 50cm x 50cm x 50cm are dug, allowed to weather for one month and refilled with topsoil and 15-20 kg of compost or farm yard manure to ground level. The planting hole should be sufficient to hold the soil ball of the polybag. Remove the bag carefully, place the soil ball with the seedlings in the planting hole with minimum disturbance and press the soil around firmly. Planting should coincide with the onset of monsoon, but in places where irrigation is resorted to, flexibility in the time of planting is possible. Shaping of clonal plants derived from fan shoots Budded plants from fan shoots have diffuse branching system and bushy growth habit. This type of growth causes difficulties in carrying out cultural operations and harvesting. If a better shape of the plant is desired, appropriate formation pruning may be necessary. This involves identification of a chupon arising from a fan shoot, allowing it to grow and removing the original, lower fan-like shoots in stages. This, however, has to be done slowly as an early drastic pruning will inhibit growth. Manuring Upto 4-5 years, growing green manure crops like Mimosa invisa, Calapagonium and Pueraria in open patches and along coconut basins can provide about 5-6 tonnes of green leaf for cocoa. These can be cut at regular intervals and incorporated in the basins. With increasing age, the canopy of cocoa closes, and the quantum of light falling on to the ground becomes so small that raising these cover crops has to be restricted to the coconut basins and some scattered patches reducing the green leaf yield to 2-3 tonnes. Border planting of Glyricidia for the supply of green leaf manure. Regular pruning of trees and depositing the prunings in the basins. In situ composting of pod husk (3600 kg/ha) and incorporation into the basin @ 7.2 kg/plant is beneficial. Apply farm yard manure @ 40 kg/plant or fresh vermicompost 20 kg per plant in four equal split doses in May, September, December and February under irrigated condition or in two equal splits in April - May and September - October under rainfed condition. Apply wood ash @1.0 kg /plant. Apply biofertilizer PGPR mix I as enriched organic maure. Inoculate with AMF in the nursery and field at the time of planting. After cultivation During the first three or four years after planting, it is essential to keep the field free from weeds. Maintenance and regulation of shade should be carried out promptly. During the establishment phase of the crop particularly in summer, provide mulching with materials like chopped banana sheath, coconut husk, cocoa husk etc. to conserve moisture in conditions of direct insolation. A mature cocoa plantation should form a proper canopy, which will be dense enough to prevent weed growth. Operations such as pruning and regulation of shade should be attended to in time. Pruning and training Cocoa grows in a series of storeys, the chupon or vertical growth of the seedling terminating at the jorquette from where four to five fan branches develop. Further vertical growth is continued through a side chupon that arises from a point just below the jorquette which again jorquettes after growing to some height. Left for it, the plant will grow to a height of 8-10 m repeating this process of jorquetting and chupon formation 3-5 times. When cocoa is grown as an intercrop in coconut and arecanut plantation, it is desirable to restrict the growth to one tier formed at a convenient height preferably above the head level of the workers. When jorquetting takes place at lower levels this can be raised by nipping off all the fan branches and allowing one chupon to develop and grow further to jorquette at the desired height. After this is achieved, further vertical growth is arrested through periodical removal of chupons. The intensity of pruning is to be decided by the nature of growth of individual trees, shade intensity, growth of the companion crops etc. In the early stages, pruning is done to give a particular shape to the tree. After the establishment of the trees in the garden, prune them to the extent of retaining only the required number of leaves (20-30 leaves per developing pod). Removal of secondary branches from the centre should be restricted only to those trees growing in excess shade. Irrigation Cocoa grows well as a rainfed crop under conditions of well-distributed rainfall and irrigation is not necessary. If sufficient moisture is not present in the soil due to prolonged drought or failure of rains, irrigation is to be given once in five days. Irrigation, however, helps in better growth of plants and precocity in bearing. Top working This technique is useful to rejuvenate old and unproductive cocoa plants and also to convert genetically poor yielders to high yielders. This consists of snapping back the desired trees below the jorquette after cutting half way. The snapped canopy continues to have contact with the trunk. A number of chupons would arise below the point of snapping and this is triggered by the breakage of apical dominance and continued connection with the snapped canopy. Patch budding as described earlier may be done on three to four vigorous and healthy shoots using scions from high yielding, disease resistant clones and the remaining chupons are removed. The polythene tape is removed three weeks after budding and the stock portion above the bud union is snapped back. The snapped portion is removed after two hardened leaves develop from the bud. When sufficient shoots are hardened, canopy of the mother tree can be completely removed. Because of the presence of an established root system and the trunk with reserve food, the top worked trees grow much faster and give prolific yield one year after the operation. Though top working can be done in all seasons, it is preferable to do it in rain-free period in irrigated gardens. For rainfed situations, it may preferably be done after the receipt of pre-monsoon showers. Top worked trees start yielding heavily from the second year onwards. About 50 per cent improved yield is obtained in the second year and about 100 per cent improved yield in the third year. Loss of crop for one year during the operation is compensated by bumper crop in the coming years. The main stem will continue to belong to the older plant and fruits borne on this area belong to the poor yielder. Better yields are however obtained from the fan branches of the high yielding clone used for top working. Plant protection Pests Among the pests infesting cocoa, the major ones are the red borer, tea mosquito bug, mealy bug, grey weevil, cock chaffer beetle. These pests are not of very disastrous and these can be effectively controlled by mechanical means. Rats and squirrels cause considerable damage to ripening pods. Continuous trapping using attractants will be effective to check the squirrel and rat population in the field. As these cause damage to ripe fruits only, damage can be reduced by harvesting regularly and not allowing the ripe pods to remain on the trees for long periods. Adopt rat control measures as in coconut. Disease Among the diseases affecting mature plants, black pod caused by Phytophthoa palmivora and Vascular Streak Dieback caused by Oncobasidium theobromae are important. The measures recommended to control black pod disease are 1. Periodic removal and destruction of infected pods. 2. Cultural practices like proper pruning and regulating the overhead shade to reduce humidity and to improve aeration. 3. Spraying Bordeaux mixture one per cent at 15 days intervals starting from the onset of monsoon along with periodic removal of infected pods. 4. Extracts of Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Lawsonia inermis and Adenocalymma allicea is effective in inhibiting lesion development on detached cocoa pods. 5. Periodical spraying and drenching of 2% Pseudomonas fluorescensP1 is very effective in checking the disease. 6. Quarantine measures are important in Vascular Streak Dieback since the pathogen is systemic in nature. Cocoa nurseries should not be maintained near diseased trees because young plants are easily affected by the disease. Regular pruning of infected branches is recommended to maintain a very low level of infection. During pruning, the branches should be split open to detect the extent of streaking in the wood. The branches are then to be cut 30 cm below the last detectable streak. Eradicative pruning will be more effective if carried out at least one month prior to the wet season. Removal of prunings from the cocoa field is not necessary because the fungus cannot survive or produce spores in the dead wood. Genetic resistance offers good prospects of controlling Vascular Streak Dieback. From Kerala Agricultural University, 10 disease resistant clones have been released, the budded plants of which offer a considerable degree of resistance. The hybrid seedlings produced from the clonal gardens of the University are also tolerant to this disease. Harvesting It takes about 170 days for a cocoa pod to develop from formation to maturity. During the period from 70-140 days after pollination, the size of pods and their fat and sugar content increase rapidly. Ripening takes about 25 days, during which, the pods change colour depending on the variety. Pods remain suitable for harvesting for fairly long time after they have ripened. Hence, it is possible to have harvest of sufficient number of pods at a time by either delaying the harvest of early-ripened pods or harvest of pods, which are fully ripened. Harvesting should be done at regular intervals rather than daily, once in 7-10 days. Avoid over-ripening of pods. The discards at the harvest can be left in the garden either in the open during summer or in pits at different sites in the rainy season, or they can be incorporated in the compost. Pod husks from the fermentary can also be used similarly as a good source of organic manure. Pods are removed by cutting with a sickle-sharp knife, without damaging the cushion from which it is developed. After 2-3 days, they are split by banging them against some hard objects. Opening the pods with a knife damages the beans. During the period between harvesting and splitting, pre-fermentation activity inside the pod is hastened, which improves later fermentation. Beans from the split pods are scraped out with fingers. Portions of placenta, and broken, germinated, caked, parthenocarpic and undeveloped beans are removed. On an average, 10-12 pods give 1 kg of wet beans and 3 kg of wet beans (from 30-36 pods) give 1 kg of fermented and dried beans. Fermentation During fermentation, the pulp or mucilage covering the fresh beans is removed and characteristic chocolate flavour is imparted to the final produce. The process is simple but must be carried out properly in order to get beans of good quality. Heat is produced by keeping the fresh beans compactly and this heat must be conserved so that chemical changes inside the bean can be completed. The four methods of fermentation usually employed involve the use of baskets, heaps, boxes and trays for filling up the wet beans. Tray method The best method suitable for small quantities of beans is the tray fermentation. Wooden trays, 10 cm deep with slatted / split cane bottoms are divided into a number of sections by means of wooden partitions that fit into appropriate grooves at required distances. The capacity of the tray can be adjusted depending upon the availability of beans by keeping the wooden plank in the appropriate grooves. A convenient tray can be 25 cm wide and 60 cm long. Wet beans are filled in the tray and levelled. About 10 kg of wet beans may be required to load one tray fully. A single tray of beans will not ferment properly and at least four or five trays are needed for successful fermentation. The trays are stacked one over the other in such a manner that the cocoa filled portions are in a single row one above the other. The top tray is covered with plantain leaves. After 24 hours, a close fitting sack is put to cover the stack to keep the beans warm. Mixing or stirring of beans is not necessary and fermentation gets completed in 4 to 5 days, whereas 6 to 7 days are required for other methods of fermentation. Basket method In this method, bean lots ranging from 2-6 kg can be fermented successfully. Mini baskets may be made of bamboo matting, closely woven and should have a diameter of 20 cm and height of 15 cm for a capacity of 2 kg. For slightly larger lots, proportionately deeper baskets may be used (e.g., for 6 kg, the depth may be about 40 cm). The baskets are lined with one or two layers of torn banana leaves to facilitate drainage of sweatings. Wet beans are then filled, compacted and covered with banana leaves. The baskets are placed on a raised platform to allow the flow of drippings. After 24 hours, it is covered with gunny-sack and applied weights (bricks). The beans are to be taken out and stirred well 48 hours and 96 hours after the initial setting. Fermentation will be completed in six days and the beans can be taken for drying on the seventh day. A number of factors influence the duration of fermentation. Weather changes and season are important through their influence on temperature and atmospheric moisture. Ripening also affects fermentation. Beans from unripe pods cannot be fermented. Beans of Criollo ferment more quickly than those of Forastero. During the early stages of fermentation, heat is produced by the action of anaerobic microorganisms. The beans are killed by the combined effect of heat and acetic acid and the cocoa aroma and flavour potential are developed. Judging the end point of fermentation Well-fermented beans will be plumpy and filled with a reddish brown exudate. The testa becomes loosened from the cotyledons. When cut open, the cotyledons will have a bleached appearance in the centre with a brownish ring in the periphery. When above 50% of beans in a lot show the above signs, it can be considered as properly fermented. Drying On completion of fermentation, beans are dried either in the sun or by artificial means. Sun drying can be done in thin layers 2-3 cm deep and stirring from time to time. Under normal sunny weather, drying can be completed in four to five days. While drying in mechanical driers, care must be taken to avoid exposure of the beans to smoke, fumes etc. The most common method of determining bean dryness is to take a sample and compress this in the palm of the hand and listen for the characteristic sound, which is associated with correctly dried cocoa. The more scientific method is to use a moisture meter. Storage The dried beans with moisture content of 6-8% may be packed in polythene bags or polythene lined gunny bags. Some special conditions have to be provided in storage in order to maintain the quality of the cured beans. Properly dried beans can be kept in 200-300 gauge polythene covers if only small quantities are involved or in polythene lined gunny bags in the case of larger stocks. Beans should be cleaned of flat, broken and other defective beans before storing. The store should be sufficiently ventilated and the bags should be kept on a wooden platform with air space of about 15-20 cm below the wooden planks set over the floor. The humidity should not exceed 80% so as to prevent mould development and pest incidence in the beans. As cocoa beans can absorb and retain permanently any odour from its surroundings, other food-stuffs should not be kept with cocoa. So also, smoke or kerosene fumes should be prevented from entry. NUTMEG (Myristica fragrans) Nutmeg requires a hot, humid climate without pronounced dry season. The soil should be rich in organic matter and well drained. The tree prefers partial shade. Sheltered valleys are the best suited. It can be grown up to about 900 m above MSL. Varieties Select locally available, high yielding and high quality cultivars. Viswashree is an improved variety from IISR. Seeds and sowing Seeds from fully ripened tree-burst fruits are collected directly from the tree for raising seedlings. The fleshy rind and the mace are removed before sowing. Care should be taken to avoid drying of seeds, as dried seeds fail to germinate. Hence immediate sowing of seeds is recommended. Otherwise seeds should be kept in baskets filled with moistened sand till sowing. Seeds of fully mature fruits will be of black colour. Seed beds of 100 – 120 cm width, 15 cm height and of convenient length may be prepared in cool and shady places. A mixture of garden soil and sand in the ratio 3:1 may be used for preparing nursery beds. Over this, sand is spread to a thickness of 2 -3 cm and the seeds placed 2 cm below the surface at a spacing of about 12 cm on either side. Seeds germinate within 50 – 80 days after sowing. Young seedlings cannot withstand direct sunlight or heavy moisture. When the plumule produces two elongated opposite leaves, the seedlings are to be transferred from beds to poly bags of size 13cm x 18 cm. Field planting is done six months after germination. Seedlings attain a height of around 23 cm at this stage. Planting Nutmeg requires shade for optimum growth. Hence suitable banana varieties can be planted on both sides at a distance of 1m from the pit. This will provide shade in the early stages. Generally nutmeg is cultivated as an intercrop in coconut gardens. Hence the required shade for the growth of plants will be provided by the main crop like coconut. Pits of 90cm x 90cm x 90 cm are dug at a spacing of 8m x 8m with the onset of South West monsoon. The pits are filled with top soil and compost or well decomposed cattle manure and seedlings are planted. Aftercare Small rootlets spread very near to top soil. Hence digging should be avoided in the root zone. Therefore hand weeding is generally recommended. Certain rootlets may come above surface soil. Earthing up should be done to protect such rootlets. Dried branches are to be removed. Small branches, which grow erect from the main branches, should also be removed as they do not set fruits. Manuring Nutmeg requires heavy manuring. Cow dung or compost is found to be good. Apply 10 kg cattle manure or compost per seedling during the first year and increase the quantity of organic manure to 50 kg gradually till the tree attains an age of 15 years. This can be applied in two or three split doses. Application of poultry manure, vermi compost, neem cake and bone meal is also beneficial to enhance the growth and yield (Table 19). Table 19. Additional requirement of organic manures Organic manures Quantity 1st Year 2nd Year Bone meal 100g/plant 100g/plant Neem cake 100g/plant 100g/plant Poultry manure 2kg/plant 4kg/plant Vermi compost 2kg/plant 4kg/plant Gradually increase the dose of the manure as the plant grows. Application of biofertilizers such as Azospirillum and phosphobacteria / PGPR mix I @10 to 25g/plant in the root zone during the first year and 25 to 50g/plant during subsequent years is also advantageous. Seedling root dip is also beneficial to the plants. Inoculate with AMF in the nursery and field at the time of planting. Harvesting Peak period of harvest is from December to May. When fruits are fully ripe, the nuts split open. These are either plucked from the tree or allowed to drop. The two major products are nutmeg and mace. Dried nutmeg and mace are directly used as spice and also for the preparation of their derivatives. The nuts meant for sowing are kept in moist places and others are dried in the sun for six to eight days till they rattle in their shell. They are stored in warm dry places prior to shelling. Plant protection Diseases Pests The hard scale Saissetia nigra occurs on the pencil thick branches and desaps the tissues. The infested shoots invariably develop sooty mould cover. Spray tobacco decoction/neem- garlic suspension (2%). Leaf spot and shot hole (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) Syptoms: Sunken spots surrounded by a yellow halo are the initial symptoms. Subsequently the central portion of the necrotic region drops off resulting in shot hole symptoms. Die back symptoms are also observed in some of the mature branches. On young seedlings drying of the leaves and subsequent defoliation are seen. Control: The disease can be controlled by spraying 1% Bordeaux mixture 2-3 times during rainy season. Fruit rot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) Symptoms: Water soaked lesions are seen on the fruits, the tissues of which become discoloured and disintegrated. Premature splitting of the pericarp and rotting of mace and seed are the main symptoms of this disease. The internal tissues are found rotten. The fallen fruits become enveloped with the growth of the organism. The above diseases can be controlled by spraying Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 20 g/ litre / PGPR mix II/ spraying 1% bordeux mixture.

Posted by
: Anas
Email
: anasarahim@gmail.com
Designation
: Farmer
Place
: Kangazha
Posted Date

11/1/2019

Question

Sir I have to start Bush pepper nursery.I am very interested to start small scale business in my home.I want to know about any help from kissan Kerala for bush pepper.

Answer

Dear Remya, ush pepper For production of bush pepper, two to four node semi hard wood lateral branches are to be collected with a segment of orthotropic shoot intact and planted in the nursery for rooting during May-June. Well rooted plants are used for field planting. The rooted cuttings are to be planted at 3 pits or pots. Fertilizers can be applied @ 1.0, 0.5 and 2.0 g/pot of N, P2O5 and K2O respectively at bimonthly interval. Alternatively, application of 15 g groundnut cake or 33 g of neem cake can also meet the N requirement of the crop. The bushy nature of the plant will have to be ensured by proper pruning of the viny growth. The potted plants are to be kept preferably under partial shade. It is necessary that re-potting is carried out after every two years. For more details you may please contact your nearest krishibhavan and / Pepper Research Station, Panniyoor 0460-2227287

Posted by
: Remya Ajith
Email
: remyaajith16@gmail.com
Designation
: Farmer
Place
: Pala
Posted Date

26/12/2018

Question

How to double cardomom flowering...

Answer

Dear Jaise, In cardamom flowering starts in the pre monsoon period (April –May) and even later, depending upon the weather conditions. . Climate change is reported to affect the flowering patterns of various crops and plants and the availability of pollinators. In some areas flowering can be observed almost throughout the year. As many as 75 inflorescences are borne by a single plant. The multiple branches produce more flowers than single branch, but over 80 per cent of flowers and capsules are shed in all types and almost half of this is caused by physiological factors Cardamom has bisexual flowers and is self-compatible but cross-pollination is common. Self-pollination is obstructed due to the slight protrusion of the stigma above the stamens. The main pollination agent in cardamom is honeybee (Apis cerana indica). To improve flowering and pollination :- • Maintain four bee colonies per hectare during the flowering season for increasing fruit set and production of capsules. • Control the attack of cardamom thrips and shoot or capsule borer • Follow regular watering of plants depending on the moisture content in soil For more datails you may also contact Cardamom Research Station, Pampadumpara 0486 8236263 / Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Myladumpara 04868 237207

Posted by
: JAISE THOMAS
Email
: jaisthomas19@gmail.com
Designation
: Farmer
Place
: Kamakshy
Posted Date

11/10/2018

Question

I need the ' panchami ' verify of black pepper Where from can i get it?

Answer

Dear Afsal For the availability of pepper varieties Please contact (1)Pepper Research Station, Panniyoor 0460-2227287(2)Spices Board 04935 202605 (3)Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Peruvannamuzhi, 0495 2666041 (4)IISR Farm, Peruvannamoozhi 0496 2249371 (5)IISR-Chelavoor 0496-2730294

Posted by
: Afsal
Email
: Afsalba9@gmail.com
Designation
: Farmer
Place
: Thirunelly
Posted Date

15/9/2018

Question

We are looking for bulk purchase of CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA. Can anyone guide me the right location in Kerala to source it? Ph- 8879209499

Answer

Dear Sivaraj For guidance in this regard You may contact 1) Directorate of Arecanut & Spices Ph : 0495 2369877 2)INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SPICES RESEARCH (IISR)P.B.No. 1701, Marikunnu P.O., Kozhikode - 673 012 Ph : 0495-2730294 3) SPICES BOARD P.B. No. 2277, Kochi - 682 025 Ph : 0484 2333304

Posted by
: Sivaraj
Email
: sivarajtp@yahoo.co.in
Designation
: Others
Place
: SREEKRISHNAPURAM
Posted Date

14/9/2018

Question

I need help for Starting a pepper farming in my land almost 50 cent. I saw Vietnam model farming in Internet . Is there any way I can get help from kissan kerala

Answer

Dear Rahul Youy may get guidance from the following institute. Please contact them. 1)Pepper Research Station, Panniyoor 0460-2227287 2)Spices Board 0484 2333610

Posted by
: Rahul CP
Email
: rahooworld@gmail.com
Designation
: Others
Place
: Meloor
Posted Date

13/8/2018

Question

Pepper and cardamom producing major districts in kerala and reason

Answer

Dear Jincy, Please refer the following link http://www.ecostat.kerala.gov.in/images/pdf/publications/Agriculture/data/2016-17/rep_agristat_1617.pdf

Posted by
: Jincy k Jose
Email
: jinnilambur@gmail.com
Designation
: Scientist
Place
: Nilambur
Posted Date

24/7/2018

Question

Where is the vanilla farming training center near maharashtra.and where to sale vanilla beans?

Answer

Dear Abhijeet, Please contact Spices Board (Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Govt. of India) 'Sugandha Bhavan" N.H.By Pass, Palarivattom.P.O Cochin - 682025 Kerala, India

Posted by
: Abhijeet Wangale
Email
: auracrownkop@gmail.com
Designation
: Farmer
Place
: Karveer
Posted Date

24/7/2018

Question

Where is the vanilla farming training center near maharashtra.and where to sale vanilla beans?

Answer

Dear Abhijeet, Please contact Spices Board (Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Govt. of India) 'Sugandha Bhavan" N.H.By Pass, Palarivattom.P.O Cochin - 682025 Kerala, India

Posted by
: Abhijeet Wangale
Email
: auracrownkop@gmail.com
Designation
: Farmer
Place
: Karveer
Posted Date

16/6/2018

Question

Sir I have one acres of land, My land is at cherthala south panchayat, alappuzha. I am interested in cultivating turmeric. I need some guidance for this. Sir, where to approach for this guidance.

Answer

Dear Sreeja, Planting materials may be available at District Agricultural Farm, Mavelikkara (0479 2357690).For technical and financial assistance pls contact Agricultural officer , Krishi Bhavan , Cherthala South (0478-2157417; 9446940254)

Posted by
: Sreeja Anilkumar
Email
: sreejam69@ymail.com
Designation
: Farmer
Place
: cherthala south

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